an image, subject, or style that is traditionally or popularly used to
represent, symbolize, or associate meaning to another thing
a visual image used to represent a religious figure
symbolism associated with an image
A classic example of a contemporary icon. The iconography of love has long been associated with the heart. It's symbolism is recognized by most people.
It relates to cause and effect because the creation of an art image can become an icon with associated iconography without that being the intent of the artist but the effect nonetheless.